Wednesday, 27 December 2017

Hiera and how it works within Puppet

Hiera and how it works within Puppet

Hiera allows us to modify settings from modules within Puppet - for this example I will be tweaking some of the default settings from the saz/ssh module.

Let's start by firstly install hiera:

puppet module install puppet/hiera

Hiera makes use of hierarchies - for example servers in a specific location might need a paticular DNS server, however all servers might require a specific SSH configuration. These settings are defined within the hiera.yaml file:

cat /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/hiera.yaml

---
version: 5
defaults:
  # The default value for "datadir" is "data" under the same directory as the hiera.yaml
  # file (this file)
  # When specifying a datadir, make sure the directory exists.
  # See https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/environments.html for further details on environments.
  # datadir: data
  # data_hash: yaml_data
hierarchy:
  - name: "Per-node data (yaml version)"
    path: "nodes/%{::trusted.certname}.yaml"
  - name: "Other YAML hierarchy levels"
    paths:
      - "common.yaml"

We're going to modify the heirarchy a little - so let's back it up firstly:

cp /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/hiera.yaml /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/hiera.yaml.bak

and replace it with:

---
version: 5
defaults:
  # The default value for "datadir" is "data" under the same directory as the hiera.yaml
  # file (this file)
  # When specifying a datadir, make sure the directory exists.
  # See https://docs.puppet.com/puppet/latest/environments.html for further details on environments.
  # datadir: data
  # data_hash: yaml_data
hierarchy:
  - name: "Per-Node"
    path: "nodes/%{::trusted.certname}.yaml"
  - name: "Operating System"
    path: "os/%{osfamily}.yaml"
  - name: "Defaults"
    paths:
      - "common.yaml"

We now have the ability to set OS specific settings - for example some (older) operating systems might not support specific cipher suites.

Let's run the following on our client to identify what Puppet classifies it as:

facter | grep family

  family => "RedHat",

So let's create the relevent structure:

touch /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/data/os/RedHat.yaml
touch /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/data/os/Debian.yaml
touch /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/data/os/common.yaml

We'll proceed by installing the saz/ssh module:

puppet module install saz/ssh

In this example we will concentrate on hardening the SSH server:

cat <<EOT > /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/data/common.yaml
---
ssh::storeconfigs_enabled: true

ssh::server_options:
    Protocol: '2'
    ListenAddress:
        - '127.0.0.0'
        - '%{::hostname}'
    PasswordAuthentication: 'no'
    SyslogFacility: 'AUTHPRIV'
    HostbasedAuthentication: 'no'
    PubkeyAuthentication: 'yes'
    UsePAM: 'yes'
    X11Forwarding: 'no'
    ClientAliveInterval: '300'
    ClientAliveCountMax: '0'
    IgnoreRhosts: 'yes'
    PermitEmptyPasswords: 'no'
    StrictModes: 'yes'
    AllowTcpForwarding: 'no'
 
EOT

We can check / test the values with:

puppet lookup ssh::server_options --merge deep --environment production --explain --node <node-name>

Finally restart the puppet server:

sudo service puppetserver restart

and poll the server from the client:

puppet client -t


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