Wednesday, 18 October 2017

SELinux: Adding a trusted directory into the httpd policy

By default on CentOS 7 / RHEL the '/var/www' directory is not permitted as part of the httpd policy - so instead we need to use semanage command in order to add this directory:

semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/'

and then apply the context changes with:

restorecon -v /var/www/

you will also need to apply the context changes to any files within the directory as well e.g.:

restorecon -v /var/www/index.html

Thursday, 5 October 2017

Using Arachni Scanner with cookies / restricted areas

Below is a command line example I like to use with the Arachni Scanner - it allows you to use a session cookie (you can obtain from something like tamperdata) and ensures that specific URL's are not caled - for example logoff - which would (obviously) kill our session:

./arachni --http-cookie-string "cookie123" --scope-exclude-pattern logoff --scope-exclude-pattern login

Thursday, 28 September 2017

Python Example: Viewing members of a group with ldap3

Although the ldap3 module for python is well documented I didn't find many good examples - so I decided to publish this one for others:

from ldap3 import Server, Connection, ALL, NTLM, SUBTREE
import re
# Global varsBindUser = 'domain\\username'BindPassword = '<yourpassword>'SearchGroup = 'Domain Admins'ADServer = 'dc01.domain.tld'SearchBase = 'DC=domain,DC=tld'

def getUsersInGroup(username, password, group):
    server = Server(ADServer)
    conn = Connection(server, user=username, password=password, authentication=NTLM, auto_bind=True)
                search_filter='(&(objectClass=GROUP)(cn=' + group +'))', search_scope=SUBTREE,
                attributes=['member'], size_limit=0)
    result = conn.entries

    return result

def getUserDescription(username, password, userdn):
    server = Server(ADServer)
    conn = Connection(server, user=username, password=password, authentication=NTLM, auto_bind=True)
                search_filter='(&(objectClass=person)(cn=' + userdn + '))', search_scope=SUBTREE,
                attributes=['description'], size_limit=0)
    result = conn.entries

    return result

print('Querying group: ' + SearchGroup)

regex_short = r" +CN=([a-zA-Z ]+)" # extracts username onlyregex_long = r" +(?:[O|C|D][U|N|C]=[a-zA-Z ]+,?)+" # extracts complete DNmatches = re.findall(regex_short, str(getUsersInGroup(username=BindUser, password=BindPassword, group=SearchGroup)))

print('Found ' + str(len(matches)) + ' users associated with this group...')

for match in matches:
    print('Getting description for account: ' + match + '...')
    match_description = str(getUserDescription(username=BindUser, password=BindPassword, userdn=match))

    # check if user has a valid description    regex_desc = r"description:[ A-Za-z]+"    if, match_description):
        print(, match_description)

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Tuesday, 26 September 2017

Changing a puppet master certificate

In the event you want to change a puppet server's hostname you will need to also generate a new certificate and re-issue a certificate to each of it's agents.

Firstly delete the existing certificate on the puppet master:

rm -Rf /etc/puppetlabs/puppet/ssl/

and on the puppetserver / CA issue:

sudo puppet cert destroy <puppetserver.tld>

and then on the puppetserver generate a new CA with:

puppet cert generate --dns_alt_names=puppetserver,puppetdb

start the server:

puppet master --no-daemonize --debug

and on each puppet agent generate a new certificate - but firstly ensure existing old CA certs etc. have been removed.

Run the following on the master:

puppet cert clean client01

and the following on the client:

sudo service puppet stop
rm -Rf /etc/puppetlabs/puppet/ssl
rm -Rf /opt/puppetlabs/puppet/cache/client_data/catalog/client01.json
sudo service puppet start

puppet agent --test --dns_alt_names=puppetserver,puppetdb

And finally sign them on the puppet

puppet cert --list

puppet cert --allow-dns-alt-names sign

puppet cert --allow-dns-alt-names sign

puppet cert --allow-dns-alt-names sign

and so on...

If you are using PuppetDB you will also need to ensure it's using the latest CA cert:

rm -Rf /etc/puppetlabs/puppetdb/ssl

puppetdb ssl-setup

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Forwarding mail for the root user to an external address

Quite often I find mail such as those generated by cron jobs are sent to the user they are executed under - for example root.

Using the 'aliases' file we can instruct any mail destined for a specific user to be forwarded to another (internal or external) address - for example by adding the following to /etc/aliases:

sudo vi /etc/aliases


and ensure those changes take effect by issuing:

sudo newaliases

and finally reloading the mail server:

sudo service postfix reload

Tuesday, 19 September 2017

Installing / setting up Samba on CentOS 7

Firslty install the required packages:

sudo dnf install samba samba-client samba-common

We'll use /mnt/backup for the directory we wish to share:

mkdir -p /mnt/backup

Make a backup copy of the existing samba configuration:

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf cp /etc/samba/smb.conf.orig

and adding the following into /etc/samba/smb.conf:

workgroup = WORKGROUP
netbios name = centos
security = user
comment = archive share
path = /mnt/backup
public = no
valid users = samba1, @sambausers
writable = yes
browseable = yes
create mask = 0765

*NOTE*: [ARCHIVE] is the share name!

Let's proceed by creating our samba user:

groupadd sambausers
useradd samba1
usermod -G sambausers samba1
smbpasswd -a samba1

Ensure the user / group has the relevant permissions:

chgrp -R sambausers /mnt/backup
chmod -R 0770 /mnt/backup

In my case this didn't work since this directory was a USB hard drive formatted with NTFS - so instead I had to set the group, owner and permissions as part of the mounting process in fstab - my fstab line looked something like:

UUID=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX /mnt/backup ntfs umask=0077,gid=1001,uid=0,noatime,fmask=0027,dmask=0007 0 0

This ensures the group we created has access to the directory and that normal users do not have access to the files / directories. (You'll need to replace the 'gid' by obtaining the group id with getent or doing a cat /etc/group | grep "<group-name>")

If you have SELinux enabled you will want to change the security context on the directory you wish to export:

sudo dnf -y install policycoreutils-python
sudo chcon -R -t samba_share_t /mnt/backup
sudo semanage fcontext -a -t samba_share_t /mnt/backup
sudo setsebool -P samba_enable_home_dirs on

Enable and start the relevent services:

sudo systemctl enable nmbd
sudo systemctl enable smbd

sudo systemctl start nmbd
sudo systemctl start smbd

While smbd handles the file and printer sharing services, user authentiaction and data sharing; nmbd handles NetBIOS name service requests generated by Windows machines.

Add the relevent firewall rules in:

sudo iptables -t filter -A INPUT -i ethX -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 137 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -t filter -A INPUT -i ethX -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 138 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -t filter -A INPUT -i ethX -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 139 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -t filter -A INPUT -i ethX -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 445 -j ACCEPT

From a Windows client we can test the share with something like:

net use \\SERVER\archive

or from *nix using the smbclient utility.